1. What are the ypes of Emergency?
iii) Gas explosion
vi) Engine Failure
vii) Gas Leak
2. What is the check list for Main engine failure?
* Master informed;
* Rudder and bow thrusters used to best navigational advantage;
* Preparation for anchoring if in shallow water;
* ‘Not under command’ shapes and or lights exhibited;
* Warning broadcast;
3. What are the types of Emergency signals?
i) General Emergency Alarm Signal
ii) Abandon Ship signal
iii) Distress signal
4. What is Drill?
The term drill and practice is defined as a method of instruction characterized by systematic repetition of concepts, examples, and practice problems
PART – B
5. Define the Check list for Man overboard?
* Life buoy with light, flare or smoke signal released;
* Avoiding action taken;
* Position of Life buoy as search datum noted;
* Master informed;
* Engine Room informed;
6. Define Abandon signal.
There is no statutory Abandon Ship signal. It is likely to be given verbally and though publics address system by the Master of the vessel only. It may differ from ship to ship and company to company. Before giving abandonment order, Fire Fighting, Damage Control Party, wheelhouse, Engine Room, Radio room must be called off and final report made by each lifeboat, to the bridge.
7. What are the importance of training?
The importance of training and drills is that they reduce fear and shock. Even in the case of passengers, their regular attendance at any previous boat and lift raft drills will have given them a certain amount of confidence and familiarity which will materially assist in reducing panic. The will be of great value to both passengers and crew of the ship.
8. What are the types of drills?
* Abondon ship drill
* Fire drill
* Survival Craft drill
9. Explain the Actions to be taken in the event of Emergency.
Emergency Signals, Muster List, Muster Stations, Correct use of Personal Safety Equipment
General Emergency Alarm Signal :
It is an only signal for summoning crew and passengers to their muster stations when ever any emergency occur. It consists of seven and more short blast followed by one long blast on the ship’s whistle or siren and additionally on an electrically operated bell or klaston or other equivalent warning system.
The ship’s main power supply or the emergency source of electrical power shall power emergency alarm signal in case the ship’s power supply fails. The system shall be capable of operating from the navigating bridge and also from the other strategic points, except for the ship’s whistle. It shall be audible though out the entire working places, engine room, and all the accommodation.
On hearing the emergency signal, all persons must go to their muster stations–as per the muster list. They must put on their warm clothing or water proof clothing or extra clothing including head cover cap pullover and collect their life jacket or donning their life jackets. And have. a good drink of water and swing into action- to save the ship by way of controlling the situation and preparation all life saving appliances.
Abandon Ship Signal
There is no statutory Abandon Ship signal. It is to be given verbally though publics address system by the Master of the vessel only. It may differ from ship to ship and company to company. Before giving abandonment order, .Fire Fighting, Damage Control Party, wheelhouse, Engine Room, Radio Room must be called off and final report lifeboat, to the bridge.
No ship is to be abandoned except by the order of the master. As apart from the general emergency alarm signal the master of the vessel will designate a special signal for “Abandon Ship”.
The Following signals used or exhibited either together or separately, indicate distress and the need of assistance:
(a) a gun explosive signal fired at intervals of about a minute;
(b) a continuos sounding with any fog signaling apparatus;
(c) rockets or shell throwing red stars fired one at a time at short intervals;
(d) a signal made by the Radio Telegraphy or by any other signaling method consisting of the group (…___…) – SOS in Morse Code;
(e) a signal sent by Radio Telephony, consisting of the spoken word “May Day”;
(f) the International Code of Signals of Distress indicaied by N.C.;
(g) a sign61 consisting of a square flag having above or below it a ball or anything resembling a ball;
The Muster Lists & Muster Stations
Thy Master of the vessel shall prepare the Muster Lists before h e ship proceeds to sea and format of the muster list for a passenger ship must be approved by the Government). Muster lists must be kept revised at all, times as necessary if more than 25% of the crew changes.
The Muster Lists shall specify:
The muster list shall show all the special duties assigned to the different members of the crew against their name and rank to ensure that:
a) Closing of watertight doors, fire doors, valves, scuppers, vent pipes, side scuffles, sky lights, port holes, Cowles and other similar openings;
b) Equipping survival craft with extra food, biscuits, sugar cubes tinned milk, tinned fruits, fresh fruits and milk products, extra water, extra fuel and blankets etc.;
c) Narrie of the key persons and
d) Substitutes of key persons, incase any one of the key persons who may become disabled taking into account that different types of emergencies may call for personnel with a variety of skills;
Mustering of passengers and donning of life jackets correctly and that they are suitably clad; . The general preparation of life saving appliances such as – lifeboats and life raft to their embarkation decks.
- The muster list shall show all the special duties for fighting the fire, having regard to the ship’s fire control plans, such as manning of fire parties, fire fi ting equipment etc.
Carrying of emergency radio, EPIRB, SARI’ as detection equipment.
- Ship’s pyrotechnics (12 numbers from the bridge).
Sounding of an emergency signal.
- The order to abandon ship by the master of the vessel, copies of the Muster Lists must be posted in conspicuous places including the navigating bridge, crew accommodation and engine room.
In passenger ships, the list shall show the location of passenger ,muster stations. Usually, these will be public rooms, so as to protect passengers from the weather. In such places illustrations and instructions are to be posted including passenger cabins, at muster stations and other passenger spaces. These illustrations inform theft’ of their. muster stations and how to done life jackets, general emergency signals, their life boats/life raft: stations, abandon ship signal and essential actions. to be taken in an emergency. They may be issued with a card. These cards are also posted at individual cabin or berth.
10. Explain about protective clothing equipment’s.
Merchant Shipping Regulations require employers to ensure that every employee engaged in a specified work process, or who may be at risk from such a process, is supplied with suitable prot4tive clothing and equipment Overalls, gloves and suitable footwear are the proper working .dress for most work about the ship but these may not give adequate protection against particular hazards in particular jobs. Details of the protective clothing and equipment required for certain specific work processes are listed in a Merchant Shipping Notice, together with the full title of each relevant standard.
Specific recommendations for the use of special pr6tective clothing and equipment will also be found in certain sections of the Code but there will be other occasions when the need for such special protection can only be determined at the time by the officer in charge of the particular operation.
Protective clothing or equipment does nothing to reduce the hazard, it merely sets up a frail barrier against it. The first step in injury prevention should be the elimination of the hazard to the extent that is reasonable and practicable Personal protective clothing and equipment should be relied upon to afford protection against the hazards that remain.
Defective or ineffective protective equipment provide no defence. it is therefore essential that the correct items of equipment are selected and that they are properly maintained at all times. The manufacturer’s instructions should be kept safe with the relevant apparatus and ,when necessary referred to before use and when maintenance is carried out. The equipment should be kept clean and should be disinfected as and when necessary for health reasons.
A responsible-officer should inspect each item of protective equipment at regular intervals and in all cases before and after use. He should ensure that it is returned and properly stowed in d safe place. Personal protective clothing and equipment should always be checked by the wearer each time before use.
All personnel who may be required to use protective equipment should be properly trained in its use and advised of its limitations.
Personal protective clothing and equipment can be classified as follows: Head protection (safety helmets, hair protection); Heari protection; Face-and -eye protection (goggles and spectacles, facial shields); Respiratory protective equipment (dust masks, respirators, breathing apparatus); Hand and foot protection (gloves, safety boots and- shoes); . Body protection -(safety suits; safety belts, harnesses, aprons); Protection against-drowning (lifejackets, buoyancy aids and lifebuoys).
Objects falling From a height present a hazard against which safety helmets are most Commonly provided. Other hazards include abnormal heat, risk of a sideways blow or crushing, or chemical splashes) These four different types of common risk are given as a guide only and are not intended to be comprehensive.
Since the hazards are so varied in type it will be appreciated that no one type of helmet would be ideal as protection in every case.-Design details are normally decided by the manufacturer whose primary consideration will be compliance with an appropriate standard.
The shell of a helmet should be of one piece seamless construction designed to resist impact. The harness or suspension when properly adjusted forms a cradle for supporting the protector on the wearer’s head. The crown straps help absorb the force of impact They are designed to permit a clearance of approximately 25 mm between the shell and the skull of the wearer.The harness or suspension should be properly adjusted before a helmet is worn.
A bump cap is simply an ordinary cap with a hard penetration resistant shell. They are useful as a protection against bruising and abrasion when working in confined spaces such as to main engine crankcase or a double bottom tank. They do not, however, afford the same protection as safety helmets and are intended only to protect against minor knocks.
Hair nets and safety caps
Personnel working on or near to moving machinery have always to be on their guard against the possibility of loose clothing, jewelry, or their hair becoming entangled in the machinery n the case of long hair, hair nets or safety caps should be worn where a risk of -entanglement exists.
All persons exposed to high levels of noise, eg in machinery spaces, should wear ear protectors of a type roglinended as suitable for the three types–ear plugs, particular circumstances. Protectors ar disposable or permanent, and ear muffs F further information see the Code of Practice Noise Levels in Ship published by the Department of Transport.
The simplest form of ear protection is the glass-down ear plug. This type however has the disadvantage of limited capability of noise level reduction. Ear plugs of rubber or plastic also have only limited effect, in that extremes of high or low frequency cause the plug to vibrate in the ear canal causing a consequential loss in protection.
In general, ear muffs provide a more effective form of hearing protection. They consist of a pair of rigid cups designed to completely envelope the ears, fitted with soft sealing rings to fit closely against the head around the ears. The ear cups are connected by a spring loaded headband (or neck band) which ensures that the sound seals around the ears are maintained. Different types are available and provision should be made according to the circumstances of use and expert advice.
Face and eye protection
In selecting eye and combined eye and face protectors, careful consideration should be given to the kind and degree’of the hazard, and the degree of protection and comfort afforded.
The main causes of eye injury are:
(a) infra-red rays—gas welding;
(b) ultra-violet rays–electric welding;
(c) exposure to chemicals;
(d) exposure to particles, and foreign bodies.
Protectors are available in a wide variety, designed to British Standard specifications, to protect against these different types of hazard.
Ordinary prescription (corrective) spectacles, unless manufactured to a safety standard, do not afford protection. Certain -box-type goggles are designed so that they can be worn over ordinary spectacles.
Respiratory protective equipment
Respiratory protective equipment of the appropriate type is essential for protection when work has to be done in conditions of irritating, dangerous or poisonous dust, fumes or gases. The equipment may be either a respirator, which filters the air before it is breathed, or breathing apparatus which supplies air or oxygen from an uncontaminated source. The selection of the correct respiratory protective equipment for. any given situation requires consideration of the nature of the hazard, the severity of the hazard, work requirements and conditions, and the characteristics and ignitions of available equipment.
Advice on selection and the use and maintenance of the equipment is contained in the relevant British Standard, which should be available to all those concerned with the use of respiratory protective equipment on board ship.
It is most important that the face-piece incorporated in respirators and breathing apparatus is fitted correctly to prevent leakage. The wearing of spectacles, unless adequately designed for the purpose, or of beards and whiskers is likely to adversely affect the face seal
The respirator selected must be of a type designed to protect against the hazards being met.
The most common type is the dust respirator, affording protection against dusts and aerosol sprays but not against gases. There are many types of dust respirator available but they are generally of the ori-nasal type, ie half-masks covering the nose and mouth. Many types of tight, simple face masks are also available and are extremely useful for protecting against dust nuisance and non-toxic sprays but should never be used in place of proper protection against harmful dusts or sprays.
The positive pressure powered dust respirator incorporates: a face-piece connected by a tube by a tube to battery-powered blower unit Carried by the wearer to create a positive pressure in the face-piece and thus make breathing easier and reduce face-seal leakage.
The cartridge-type of respirator consists of a full face-piece or half mask connected to a replaceable cartridge containing absorbent or adsorbent material and a particulate filter.It is designed to provide protection against low and vapours.
The canister-type of respirator incorporates a full face-piece connected to an absorbent or adsorbent material contained in a replaceable canister carried in a sling on the back or side of the wearer. This type gives considerably more protection than the cartridge type.
The filters, canisters and cartridges incorporated in respirators are designed to provide protection against certain specified dusts or gases. Different types are available to provide protection against different hazards and it is therefore important that the appropriate type is selected for the particular circumstances or conditions being encountered. It must be remembered, however, that they have a limited effective life and must be replaced or renewed at intervals in accordance with manufacturers’ instructions.
Respirators provide NO protection against oxygen deficient atmosphere. They should never be used to provide protection in confined spaces such as tanks, cofferdams, double bottoms or other similar spaces against dangerous fumes, gases or vapours. Only breathing apparatus (self-contained or airline) is capable of giving protection in such circumstances .
The type of breathing apparatus to be used when entering a space that is known to be, or suspected of being deficient in oxygen or containing -toxic gases or vapours is given in section
Breathing apparatus should not be used under water unless the equipment is suitable for the purpose, and then only in an emergency.
It is recommended that resuscitators of an appropriate kind should be provided when any person may. be required to enter a dangerous space;
Hand and foot protection
The correct type of gloves should be chosen according to the hazard being faced and the kind of work being undertaken. For example, leather gloves are generally best when handling rough or sharp objects, heat-resistant gloves when handling hot objects, and rubber, synthetic or PVC gloves when handling acids, alkalis, various types of oils, solvents and chemicals in general. The exact type selected will depend upon the particular substance being handled, and in these cases expert advice should be followed
Foot injuries most often result from the wearing of unsuitable foot wear rather than from failure to wear safety shoes or boots. It is nevertheless strongly advisable that all personnel whilst at work on board ship, wear appropriate safety footwear.
The hazards commonly encountered cause injury as a result of impact, penetration through the sole, slipping, heat and crushing. Safety footweat is available which is designed to protect against these or oilier specific hazards, manufactured to various british Standards appropriate to the particular danger involved.
Protection from falls
All seamen who are working aloft, outboard or below decks or in any other area where there is a risk of falling more than 2 metres, should wear a safety harness (or belt with shock absorber) attached to a lifeline. Likewise if vessel is shipping frequent seas, persons on deck should wear a harness and, where practicable, should be secured by lifeline as protection from falls and from being washed overboard or against the ship’s structure.
Inertial clamp devices allow more freedom in movement_
Special outerwear may be needed for protection when the seaman is exposed to contact with particular contaminating or corrosive substances. This apparel should be kept for the particular purpose and dealt with as directed in the relevant sections of this Code.
Protection against drowning
Where work is being carried out override or in an exposed position where there is a reasonably foreseeable risk of falling or being washed overboard or where work is being carried out in or from a ship’s boat a lifebuoy with sufficient line should be provided. In addition and as appropriate a lifejacket or buoyancy aid should be provided.
11. Explain about the types of drills.
Musters and Drills
Musters and drills are required to be carried out regularly in accordance with Merchant Shipping regulations.
Musters and drills have the objective of preparing a trained and organized response to situations of great difficulty that may unexpectedly Threaten loss of life at sea. It is important that they should be carried out realistically, approaching as closely as possible to emergency conditions. Changes in the ship’s functions and change in the ship’s personnel from time to time should be reflected in corresponding changes in the muster arrangements.
The muster list should be conspicuously posted before the ship sails. On International voyages and in ships of Classes II a and III should be supplemented by emergency instructions for each crewmember (e.g. in the form of a card issued to each crewmember or affixed to individual crew berths or bunks). These instructions should describe the allocated muster station, survival craft station and emergency duty and all emergency signals and action, if any, to be taken, on hearing such signals.
An abandon ship drill and a fire drill must be held within 24 hours of leaving port if more than 25% of the crew have not taken part in drills onboard the ship in the previous month. As soon as possible but not later than two weeks after joining the ship, onboard training in the use of the ship’s life saving appliances, including survival craft equipment, .should be given to crew members. As soon as possible after joining the ship, crew members should also familiarize themselves with their emergency duties, significance of the various alarms and the location of their lifeboat station and of all life saving and fire fighting equipment.
All the ship’s personnel concerned should muster at a drill wearing life jackets properly secured. The life jackets should continue to be worn during lifeboat drills and launchings but in other cases they may subsequently be removed at the Mater’s discretion if they would impede or make unduly onerous the ensuing practice, provided they are kept ready to hand
The timing of emergency drills should vary so that personnel who have not participated in a particular drill may take part in the next.
Any defects or deficiencies revealed drills and the inspection which accompany them should be made good without delay
Efficient fire fighting demands the full co-operation of personnel in all departments of a ship. A fire drill should be held simultaneously with the first stage of the abandon ship drill. Fire fighting parties should assemble at their designated stations. Engine room personnel should start the fire pumps in machinery spaces and see that the full pressure is put on fire. mains. Any emergency pump situated outside machinery spaces-, should also be started. All members of the crew should know how to start and operate the pump.
The fire parties should be sent from their designated stations to the selected site of the supposed fired, taking with them emergency equipment such as axes and lamps and breathing apparatus. The locations should be changed in successive drills to give practice in differing conditions and in dealing with different types of fire so that accommodation, machinery spaces, store rooms, galleys and. cargo holds or areas of high fire hazard are all covered from time to time.
An adequate number of hoses to deal with the assumed fire should be realistically deployed. At some stage in the drill, they should be tested by bringing them into use, firstly with water provided by the machinery space pump and secondly with water from the emergency pump alone.
The drill should extend, where practicable, to the testing and demonstration of the remote controls for ventilating fans, fuel pumps and fuel tank valves and the closing of openings.
Fixed fire extinguishing installations should be tested to the extent practicable.
Portable fire extinguishers should be available for demonstration of the manner of their use. They should include the different types applicable to different kinds of fire. At each drill, a member of the fire party, a different member on each occasion, should operate one extinguisher or more extinguishers so used should be recharged before being return to their normal location or sufficient spares should otherwise be carried for demonstration purposes.
Members of the fire-fighting parties should wear breathing apparatus so each member in turn has experience of its use Search and rescue exercises should be undertaken in various parts of the ship. The apparatus should be cleaned and verified to be in good order before it stowed; cylinders of self-contained breathing apparatus should be recharged or sufficient spare cylinders otherwise carried for this purpose.
Fire appliances, fire and watertight doors and other closing appliances and also fire detection and alarm systems which have not been used in the drill should be inspected to ensure that they are in good order, either at the time of the drill or immediately afterwards. Additionally the relevant statutory requirement should be complied with.
Survival Craft Drills
Arrangements for drills should take account of the prevailing weather conditions. Where appropriate, the lowering gear and chocks should be inspected and a check made to ensure that all working parts are well lubricated.
When turning opt davits or when bringing boats or rafts inboard under p wer, Seamen should always keep clear of any moving parts.
The engines on motor lifeboats should be started and run ahead and astern. Care should be taken to avoid overheating the engine and the propeller shaft stern gland. All personnel should be familiar with the engine starting procedure.
Hand – operated mechanical propelling gears if any, should be examined and similarly tested. Radio equipment should be examined and tested with the aerial erected, by the Radio officer or another trained person and the crew instructed in its use.
Water spray systems, where fitted, should be tested in accordance with the life boat manufacturer’s instructions.
Where simultaneous off-load/on-load release arrangements are provided great care should be exercised to ensure that the hooks are fully engaged before a boat is recovered, after it has been stowed and prior to launching.
Where .davit-launched life rafts are carried then on-board training, including inflation must be carried out at intervals not exceeding four months. Great care should be taken to ensure that the.-hook is properly engaged before taking the weight of the raft. The release mechanism should bot be cocked until just prior to the raft landing in the water. if, the raft used for the inflation is part of the ship’s statutory equipment and not a special training raft, then it must be repacked a-Can approved service station.
Personnel in a rescue boat or survival craft being lowered should remain seated, keeping their hand inside the gunwale to avoid hem being crushed against the ship’s side. Lifejackets should be worn in totally enclosed lifeboats seat belts should be secured. Only the launching Crew should remain in a lifeboat being raised.
During drills, life buoys and lines should be readily available at the point of embarkation. While craft are in the water, crew should practice maneuvering the vessel by oar, sail or power as appropriate and should operate the water spray system where fitted on enclosed lifeboats.
Seamen should keep their fingers clear of the ling-link When unhooking the securing blocks on to lifting hooks -while the boat is in the water and particularly if there is a swell.
Before craft in gravity davits are recovered by power, the operation of the limit switches or similar devices should be checked.
A portable hoist unit used to recover a craft should be provided with a crutch or have an attachment to resist the torque. These should be checked. If neither device is available, the craft should be raised by hand.
Where life rafts are carved, instruction should be given to the ship’s personnel in their launching, handling and operation. Methods of boarding them and the disposition of equipment and sores on them should be explained.
The statutory scale of lifesaving appliances must be maintained at all times. if the use of a life raft for practice would bring equipment below the specified scale, a replacement must first be made available.